Rio D. Domalaon
Nursing theories is very essential for us (nurses) in our daily work. It provides us with a sound basis to describe, explain, and predict factors that influence nursing care. In nursing, caring is the core of nursing practice. As a profession, we need to develop theoretical knowledge based on research findings to form the foundation of nursing practice. Therefore, development and validation of nursing theory will help in strengthening nursing practice. It is also a source of professional autonomy and power, and it guides in nursing education, research and practice and differentiates nursing practice from other disciplines.
Nursing theory should, in general, have a significant impact on clinical practice. Patient care situations can usually be viewed within the context of some theoretical framework. Dorothea Orem's
general theory of nursing provides one such framework. The theory essentially defines the need for nursing care. This need occurs whenever a person experiences some limitation or deficit which interferes with their ability to maintain self-care. Further, the theory delineates the various interactions which should occur between a nurse and a patient.
Dorothea Orem's general theory of nursing describes nursing as a complex form of deliberate interpersonal action that ultimately provides a helping human health service. She chose the name ‘deficit’ as it describes and explain a relationship between abilities of individual, their children or adults for whom they care. The notion ‘deficit” does not refer to a specific
type of limitation, but to the relationship between the capabilities of the individual and the need for action.