Quebec has five ecozones of Canada's ,Tundra, Taiga, Boreal Shield Ecozone, Mixedwood Plains and Deciduous forest.
Boreal Shield - This zone covers the largest ecozone in Canada.It has short warm summers and long cold winters which are moderated in the Atlantic coastal regions. Vegetation in Quebec consists predominantly of spruce, balsam fir and jack pine. Poplar, trembling aspen and paper birch are some of the broadleaf trees which can be found in the more southern areas of the Boreal Sheild, along with the various pines. Different kinds of animals living in this region are: White-tailed deer, black bear, wolves, raccoons, and bobcats are some of the mammals living in this region.
Mixedwood Plains -This ecozone is the smallest of Canada's terrestrial ecozones, the Mixedwood Plains is an area of fertile plains and rolling hills which has a mild climate and abundant amount precipitation. This area is where the tranition between the Boreal and Deciduous forest occurs. This area has almost half of Canada's population.
The vegetation remaining fragments of original forest boast Canada's largest diversity of tree species, including white and red pine, oak, elm, maple and birch. The Carolinian forest to the south, one of our most vulnerable ecosystems, tulip tree, red mulberry, and cucumber-tree.
Animals live in there are white-tailed deer, black bears and other larger mammals native to the area's forests are rapidly decreaseing in number as their habitat disappears. Whitefish, sturgeon and other aquatic species have also suffered due to the degradation of their habitat because pollution, siltation, and invasion by zebra mussels and other alien species. Some wildlife, such as raccoons, black squirrels, and groundhogs, have been able to adapt and even living well in the face of man-made changes.
Taiga Plains - It is an ecozone of plains which cover the Mackenzie, Canada's largest river, and the Peace-Athabaska Delta, a globally significant wetland. The Winters are long and cold, with snow and ice for six to eight months, followed by short, cool summers. Vegetation such as jack pine,
tamarack, and paper birch. Shrubs are plentiful and include Labrador tea, cranberries, blueberries, and willows. Lichens and mosses form most of the groundcover. Animals are woodland caribou, marten, and the world's largest herd of wood bison. The red-throated loon, fox sparrow, hawk owl and northern shrike are characteristic bird species.
Southern Arctic - The Northwest Territories and Nunavut encompass most of this ecozone with a much smaller portion to the east of Hudson's Bay in Quebec. This area experiences long, cold winters and short, cool summers with a mean annual temperature of -25ўXC and only 200 - 300 mm of annual precipitation. The harsh climate and year-round presence of permafrost do not create an environment conducive to tree growth. Therefore, the area is dominated by lichens, sedges and low shrubs, such as Labrador tea and dwarf birch. Animals are brown lemmings, arctic ground squirrels and large numbers of both woodland and barren-ground caribou. The area is an important breeding and nesting ground for many migratory birds, including red-throated loons, snowy owls, and snow buntings.
Northern Arctic - This large ecozone covers most of the arctic islands, northeastern District of Keewatin, and northern Quebec. The Northern Arctic is one of the largest arctic ecosystems globally, and the coldest and driest part of Canada. Temperatures range between -30ўXC in the northern parts and 5ўXC in northern Quebec. Winters are long and dark, with snow usually remaining on the ground for 10 months of the year.
Due to the harsh climate, plant life is limited to sparse areas of mostly moss and lichen with some stunted shrubs. Arctic poppy, moss campion, and mountain avens are characteristic plants. Animals are Polar bears and muskoxen are characteristic species, while Peary caribou are found only in the high arctic islands. In the spring migratory birds, such as brant and eider ducks, arrive for the breeding season. The ocean is home to walrus, narwhal, and beluga whale.
Mixedwood Plains Ecozone
Area: 113,000 km2
Landforms: Plains and rolling hills; Great Lakes