nursing considerations Nursing interventions are aimed at reinforcement of long-term life-style changes, including a balanced diet and regular exercise. Instruction is aimed at mutually agreed-on diet and exercise goals and successful management of blood pressure, lipid levels, and glucose levels.
A state of excess body fat, which is a premorbid addiction disorder, defined as 20% above an individual’s standard weight (the ideal body weight is 21 kg/m2; a person is considered obese with a body weight above 30 kg/m2).
31% of adults are obese; 17% of children are obese. Mississippi is the fattest state with 34% obesity; Colorado is the thinnest state with 21% obesity. In 2000, there were 3.8 million people over 300 pounds, and 400,000 people (mostly males) over 400 pounds. Children are more likely to be obese if born to obese parent; the patterns may be established as early as 3 months of age, due to decreased energy expenditure in infants of obese mother.
Obesity mimics the lab findings of type-2 diabetes—e.g. insulin resistance; increased glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides; decreased HDL (cholesterol) and norepinephrine; and depression of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Conditions linked to obesity
Cardiovascular disease, thromboembolism, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, cholorectal cancer, abnormal GI transit, poor wound healing, atelectasis, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, increased risk of vision loss.
Diet, exercise, behaviour modification.
Increased lipid deposit in fat cells, decreased mobilisation of lipids from adipocytes, decreased
Endocrinology A state of excess body fat, which is regarded as a premorbid addiction disorder, defined as 20% above a person's standard weight; the ideal body weight is 21 kg/m 2 Epidemiology 59% of Americans are clinically obese, according to a 1995 report by the Institute of Medicine, there has been a 54% ↑ in obesity and a 98% ↑ in superobesity in children 6-9 yrs of age; an obese child is often an obese adult; the patterns may
be established by 3 months of age and linked to ↓ energy expenditure in infants of obese mothers; diet-resistant obesity is characterized by an inability to lose weight despite ↓ caloric intake and ↑ exercise; a certain percentage of diet-resistant obesity is related to underreporting of actual caloric consumption and/or overreporting of physical activity, not due to low energy expenditure Etiology, 2º obesity Endocrine-hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, hypogonadism–Fröhlich syndrome, polycystic ovaries, pseudohypoparathyroism Pathogenesis ↑ Lipid deposit in fat cells, ↓ mobilization of lipids from adipocytes, and ↓ lipid utilization; obesity mimics lab findings of type 2 DM–insulin resistance, ↑ glucose, ↑ cholesterol,
↑ TGs, ↓ HDL-C and norepinephrine and depressed sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Co-morbid conditions See Obesity-related disease Management Diet–balanced hypocaloric or individualized, exercise. behavior modification, hypnosis. bariatric surgery, OTC appetite suppressants, prescription agents–eg, orlistat. See Abdominal obesity. Adipsin, Adult obesity. Body mass index. Central obesity. Childhood obesity. Diet. Eye-mouth gap. Gastric 'balloon. ', Ideal weight, Morbid obesity, Orlistat, Secondary obesity, Superobesity, Upper body fat obesity.