How to run terminal

how to run terminal

1. General questions

1.1. Who is responsible for Wine?

Wine is available thanks to the work of many people around the world. Some companies that are or have been involved with Wine development are CodeWeavers. Bordeaux. TransGaming. Corel, Macadamian and Google. See Acknowledgements and WineHistory.

1.2. Does Wine hurt Linux or other free operating systems?

Wine increases the usefulness of Linux, makes it easier for users to switch to free operating systems, and for Windows developers to make applications that work on them. See the Debunking Wine Myths article for a fuller answer.

1.3. Is Wine an emulator? There seems to be disagreement.

There is a lot of confusion about this, particularly caused by people getting Wine's name wrong and calling it WINdows Emulator.

When users think of an emulator, they tend to think of things like game console emulators or virtualization software. However, Wine is a compatibility layer - it runs Windows applications in much the same way Windows does. There is no inherent loss of speed due to "emulation" when using Wine, nor is there a need to open Wine before running your application.

That said, Wine can be thought of as a Windows emulator in much the same way that Windows Vista can be thought of as a Windows XP emulator: both allow you to run the same applications by translating system calls in much the same way. Setting Wine to mimic Windows XP is not much different from setting Vista to launch an application in XP compatibility mode.

A few things make Wine more than just an emulator:
  • Sections of Wine can be used on Windows. Some virtual machines use Wine's OpenGL-based implementation of Direct3D on Windows rather than truly emulate 3D hardware.
  • Winelib can be used for porting Windows application source code to other operating systems that Wine supports to run on any processor, even processors that Windows itself does not support.

"Wine is not just an emulator" is more accurate. Thinking of Wine as just an emulator is really forgetting about the other things it is. Wine's "emulator" is really just a binary loader that allows Windows applications to interface with the Wine API replacement.

1.4. What is the difference between Wine, CrossOver, and Cedega?

Wine is the base of the project, where most of the work is being done. Wine is not perfect, but tens of thousands of people nevertheless use "vanilla" Wine successfully to run a large number of Windows programs.

CrossOver XI (formerly CrossOver Office) is a product made by a company called CodeWeavers that is based directly on Wine with a few tweaks and proprietary add-ons. Unlike the biweekly Wine releases, CrossOver releases are rigorously tested for compatibility with CodeWeavers' supported applications in order to prevent "regressions ". CodeWeavers employs a large proportion of the Wine developers and provides a great deal of leadership for the project. All improvements to Wine eventually work their way into CrossOver.

Cedega (formerly WineX) is a product from a company called TransGaming. TransGaming based their product on Wine back in 2002 when Wine had a different license, closed their source code, and rebranded their version as specialized for gamers. In the years since Cedega was originally created from Wine, development on Wine and Cedega have continued mostly independently. TransGaming currently gives back very little code to Wine. Cedega is not "Wine with more gaming support" - because Wine has had years of development since Cedega was made, and many games actually run better under Wine than under Cedega. Currently, Wine has more advanced Direct3D support than Cedega, but Cedega still has more advanced copy protection support due to TransGaming's licensing of (closed source) code from a handful of copy protection companies. Unlike CrossOver, most improvements to Wine don't get into Cedega due to the license differences between Cedega and Wine.

For more information, see Wine History.

1.5. Do I have to use the command line?

You do not have to use the command line to use Wine. You can use a graphical interface for most things, much like on Windows. In many cases you can right-click an installer and select "Open with Wine", or just double-click it. You can start installed programs using the shortcut icon or menu.

Even if you have a recent version, there are several situations when you might want to use the command line. The most common reason is to get debug output when your program does not run properly. You might also want to use utilities such as regedit that do not have menu shortcuts.

This does not hold true for Mac OS X Wine usage, which is all command line currently, unless you use a third party application.

1.6. Will Wine work with my application?

Probably! If your application is even slightly well-known, you will probably find other user reports in the Application Database. If there aren't any reports using a recent version of Wine, however, your best bet is to simply try and see. If it doesn't work, it probably isn't your fault, Wine is not yet complete. Ask for help on the forum if you get stuck.

1.7. What applications run well with Wine?

Thousands of applications work well. As a general rule, simpler or older applications tend to work well, and the latest versions of complex applications or games tend to not work well yet. See the Wine Application Database for details on individual applications. If your application is rated Silver, Gold or Platinum, you're probably okay; if it's rated Bronze or Garbage, Wine isn't really ready to run it for most users.

1.8. How do I run Wine?

Wine is not an application you run. Wine enables your computer to run Windows applications. Simply install and run your applications as you would in Windows. See How do I run an installer using Wine.

1.9. Where is my C: drive?

Wine uses a virtual C: drive instead of your real C: drive. The directory in which this is located is called a 'wineprefix.'

By default, it's in your home directory's .wine/drive_c subdirectory. (On MacOSX, see the MacOSX Wine FAQ for how to find this.)

See also the WINEPREFIX environment variable; if this is set, wine uses it to find the wineprefix.

1.10. How can I help contribute to the Wine project, and in what ways?

You can contribute programming or documentation skills, or monetary or equipment donations, to aid the Wine developers in reaching their goals.

One area where every Wine user can contribute to this project is by sending high quality bug reports to our Bugzilla and helping the developers with any followup questions that they may have about your bug. It is impossible and impractical for a developer to have a copy of every program on the market, so we need your help even after your initial bug report. If a developer has a good idea what might be causing the bug, he or she may ask if you can try a patch and see if it fixes the problem. If the patch works and then makes its way into our main development tree, the bug report will be closed, your help will be appreciated by everyone and your problem will be fixed.

For a list of ideas of how you can help, please consult the helping Wine page.

2. Installing Wine

2.1. Which version of Wine should I use?

Short answer: Use the version that works best with the particular applications you want to run. In most cases, this will be the latest development version; however, in some cases it may take some experimenting to find it.

Longer answer: Wine development is rapid, with new releases in the development branch every two weeks or so. Functionality will usually be best with the most recent development version, however, there are cases where changes to existing code in Wine cause applications that worked well in older versions to not work in the new one (these are called regressions ), as well as problems caused by the introduction of new, but as-yet-incomplete and untested, functions.

A good rule of thumb is to start with the version of Wine installed with your distro and see if that works with the applications you want to use. If it does, good! If it doesn't, upgrade. In most cases the upgrade should be to the latest

development version, but it is a good idea to check Bugzilla and the AppDB for any known regressions and/or new bugs. If there are any, and there is no easy workaround, upgrade to the most recent version known to work for your application.

While Wine does have a "stable" branch, the term "stable" refers to the branch as a whole, which is infrequently updated, and (for the minor stable releases) only with bugfixes promised not to break functionality. Users of a development release can achieve the same degree of stability by simply not upgrading. Note that user support for the stable branch is limited to the ability to file AppDB test reports. Users who ask for help on the forum/IRC or file bug reports for the stable branch will be asked to retest in the current development release.

The current stable and development releases are listed on the WineHQ home page.

Users of the Ubuntu packages: Ubuntu 13.10 shipped with Wine 1.4, which is obsolete. In addition, the name given by Ubuntu to its Wine packages does not always correspond to the actual Wine version. Before seeking help on the forum/mailing list/IRC or filing bugs, please verify the version of Wine you have installed by typing wine --version in a terminal, and if it is not the current development release, upgrade.

2.2. How do I install Wine?

Use a precompiled binary package for your operating system/distribution (see the Wine download page for links and additional information).
  • Compile Wine from source - if you can't find an up-to-date package for your OS/distribution

  • 2.3. I have a problem installing my distro's Wine package and need help

    Packaging and package manager issues are outside the purview of the Wine Project. Consult your distro's support channels for help using your package manager and interpreting any error messages you may be receiving. If you are an experienced user and believe there is a problem with the package itself and/or the repository, please report it to your distro's Wine package maintainer. WineHQ does not build any binary packages or maintain distro repositories and cannot fix problems with them.

    2.4. Can I install more than one Wine version on my system?

    Yes, but you will have to build Wine yourself (see How to compile Wine from source ), as it is not possible to have multiple distro packages installed. The easiest way to do this is to run Wine from the build directory (don't do make install ). If you want to actually install multiple versions, use --prefix when building Wine to designate a different install directory for each version, e.g.

    then install it with

    On Linux, even this step is not enough: you must also set environment variables so that the wine executable on your $PATH finds the right shared libraries. Assuming that /path/to/install/directory is $W. then for Wine version 1.4, the following settings appear to be sufficient:

    The LD_LIBRARY_PATH is definitely required.

    Note that regardless of whether you install multiple versions or run them from the build directory, you will still have to designate which version of Wine you wish to use when running applications. It is also recommended that applications being run with different Wine versions be installed into separate wineprefixes.

    2.5. Is there a 64 bit Wine?

    Yes. 64 bit Wine has been available on Linux since 1.2, and most major distros now package it for users. Normally, installation should be as simple as installing the Wine package for your distribution through your package manager. Check the Downloads page.

    A couple of things to note:
    • 32 bit Wine runs on both 32-bit and 64-bit Linux/Unix installations. 16-bit and 32-bit Windows applications will run on it.

    64-bit Wine runs only on 64 bit installations, and at present only on Linux. It requires the installation of 32 bit libraries in order to run 32 bit Windows applications. Both 32-bit and 64-bit Windows applications (should) work with it; however, there are still many bugs .

    If you need to build Wine from source, see WineOn64bit for instructions on how to build 32 bit Wine on a 64 bit system and Wine64 for instructions on how to build 64 bit Wine in a shared WoW64 setup.

    2.6. Does Wine run on all Unix filesystems?

    Mostly. Wine is written to be filesystem independent so MS Windows applications should work on virtually any full-featured UNIX filesystem. The key exception is that not all filesystems / drivers support every feature of fat32 or NTFS. One example is that the ntfsv3 drivers do not support shared-write mmap, a feature that cannot be emulated and is used by applications such as Steam.

    One other point is that Wine is a weird application in ways and some programs work better on case-insensitive filesystems (see CaseInsensitiveFilenames for more details).

    2.7. Will Wine run only under X?

    Until recently with projects such as Wayland, serious alternatives to x11drv weren't even on the horizon so development has focused on X. However, Wine's interface with the graphics driver is designed to be abstract so supporting future graphics systems will hopefully be straight-forward.

    2.8. How can I download older versions of Wine for Ubuntu?

    2.9. How do I install Wine on my netbook (eeePC, Acer Aspire One, etc.)?

    If you have replaced the customized distro that came preinstalled on your netbook (Xandros, Linpus, etc.) with one of the mainstream distros that provide up-to-date Wine packages, you should be able to install Wine as normal for that distro.

    If you are still using Xandros (eeePC ), Linpus (Acer Aspire One ) or any other customized distro, you will have to ask on your netbook's support forum. Only other users of those distros can advise you on what, if any, binary packages will work on your system, where to find them, and how to install them.

    You can also try building Wine from source following the instructions in the Wine User Guide. but you will still need to consult your netbook's support forum regarding satisfying dependencies on your particular system.

    2.10. Installing on Apple

    2.10.1. How do I install Wine on my Mac?
    OSX. It is strongly recommended that one use either Homebrew. MacPorts. or Fink to install Wine on OSX. Both support the current releases of OSX -- Mountain Lion (10.8.x). The MacPorts installation of Wine will automatically install any necessary Dependencies for a Wine installation.
    Try installing Wine as listed above. Additional requirements and troubleshooting instructions are listed on the Mac OS X FAQ .
  • If this is too complicated, there are several 3rd party apps you can use like Codeweavers' CrossOver Mac. We are looking for someone to help us build Mac OSX packages so that Wine will be as easy to install on Mac as it is on Linux. If you can help, please contact the developers' mailing list.
  • Linux. If you are running Linux on your Mac, installing Wine is as simple as installing it under Linux on a PC. Simply visit the downloads page .

  • 2.10.2. Can I use Wine on an older Mac without an Intel chip?

    No, not even in Linux. Older Macs used PowerPC processors are incompatible with code compiled for x86 (Intel and AMD) processors, unless the code is run under CPU emulation. Wine Is Not a (CPU) Emulator, nor does it include one. The Darwine project, however, was an effort to do just that.

    3. Compiling Wine

    3.1. How do I compile Wine from source?

    For 32 bit systems, the answer is simple:
    If you want to apply a patch, do it with a command like patch -p1 < foo.patch in the Wine source directory. You may have to experiment before you get this right. See the manual for patch for details.
  • Open a terminal, cd to the source directory and run To install wine (optional if you plan on running Wine from the build directory)

    If you have a 64 bit system, the answer is not so simple. For Ubuntu 12.04 and up, see BuildingBiarchWineOnUbuntu. For other distros, see WineOn64bit.

    3.2. How do I apply a patch?

    You have to build Wine from source; see above.


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