The Remarkable Summer of 2010

The summer of 2010 will be remembered by millions of people around the world as the hottest in memory. In fact, it is probable that no warmer summer in the Northern Hemisphere has ever been experienced by so many people in world history; NOAA's National Climatic Data Center rated the summer of 2010 as the hottest in the Northern Hemisphere since record keeping began in 1880. From the densely populated I-95 corridor of the USA's mid-Atlantic region (New York City to Virginia), the entire region of western Russia (St. Petersburg to the Caspian region) and for almost all of Japan, there has never in modern records been such a warm meteorological (meaning June-August) summer.

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src="/img/94/summer2010globe431.gif%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3E%3Cbig%3EChina%20and%20Japan%3C/b%3E%3C/big%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EChina%20recorded%20its%20warmest%20July%20and%20August%20since%201961,%20and%20June%20was%20the%20warmest%20on%20record%20for%20the%20northern%20third%20of%20the%20country.%20Beijing%20recorded%20temperatures%20of%20106%C2%B0%20on%20July%205%20and%206,%20tying%20its%20all-time%20record%20for%20July.%20Some%20parts%20of%20the%20city%20reached%20111%C2%B0%20on%20those%20days.%20China%20also%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20for%20an%20inhabited%20place,%20a%20reading%20of%2048.7%C2%B0C%20(119.7%C2%B0F)%20at%20Tuyoq%20on%20June%2020%20(the%20record%20for%20an%20automated%20station%20is%20the%2049.7%C2%B0C%20that%20occurred%20on%20August%203,%202008%20at%20Aydingkol.)%20Japan%20experienced%20its%20hottest%20summer%20since%20records%20began%20in%201898.%20August%20was%20Japan's%20single%20hottest%20month%20on%20record.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EThe%20almost%20unbelievable%20heat%20wave%20that%20affected%20western%20Russia%20was%20unprecedented%20for%20that%20region,%20and%20also%20was%20one%20of%20the%20deadliest%20heat%20waves%20in%20world%20history.%20The%20heat%20wave's%20death%20toll%20in%20Moscow%20alone%20was%20estimated%20by%20a%20city%20official%20to%20be%20approximately%2011,000%20in%20July%20and%20August.%20Russia's%202nd%20largest%20city,%20St.%20Petersburg,%20reached%2098.8%C2%B0F%20(37.1%C2%B0C)%20on%20August%207--the%20hottest%20ever%20recorded%20there,%20and%207%C2%B0F%20hotter%20than%20its%20prior%20all-time%20heat%20record.%20Moscow%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20since%20records%20began%20in%201878%20(downtown%20observatory),%20with%20102.2%C2%B0F%20(39.0%C2%B0C)%20on%20July%2029.%20This%20surpassed%20the%20previous%20record%20(set%20in%201921)%20by%204%C2%B0F,%20although%20the%2098%C2%B0%20old%20record%20from%201921%20was%20exceeded%20on%204%20days%20during%20July%20and%20August.%20The%20month%20of%20July%20was%20an%20amazing%2015%C2%B0%20above%20average%20in%20Moscow.%20Imagine%20if%20Washington%20D.C.%20experienced%20such%20an%20anomaly--its%20average%20July%20temperature%20is%2077.5%C2%B0F,%20so%20the%20average%20temperature%20in%20Washington%20in%20July%20would%20have%20been%2092.5%C2%B0F,%20about%209%C2%B0F%20warmer%20than%20the%20record%2083.1%C2%B0F%20seen%20in%202010.%20Accordingly,%20twenty%20days%20in%20Washington,%20D.C.%20would%20have%20exceeded%20100%C2%B0F,%20with%20the%20hottest%20day%20a%20scorching%20110%C2%B0,%204%C2%B0F%20higher%20than%20the%20previous%20all-time%20record.%20Of%20course,%20the%20continental%20climate%20of%20Moscow%20can%20not%20be%20compared%20to%20the%20more%20maritime%20climate%20of%20Washington%20DC%20so%20this%20comparison%20is%20not%20entirely%20valid%20but%20is,%20nevertheless,%20indicative%20of%20just%20how%20extreme%20the%20heat%20event%20in%20Russia%20really%20was.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%25img%20src="http://www.wunderground.com/hurricane/2010/russia_smoke_aug4.jpg%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cbig%3E%3Cb%3EU.S.%20cities%20setting%20record%20warmest%20summer%20(June%20-%20August)%20temperatures%3C/big%3E%3C/b%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EIn%20the%20U.S.A.%20the%20following%20cities%20recorded%20their%20hottest%20meteorological%20summer%20on%20record%20(the%20most%20remarkable%20being%20the%20figure%20for%20Central%20Park%20in%20New%20York%20City%20where%20records%20go%20back%20to%201869%20at%20the%20same%20location):%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ENew%20York%20City%20(Central%20Park):%2077.8%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2077.3%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201966)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EWashington%20D.C.%20National%20Airport:%2081.3%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2080.0%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201943)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EDulles%20Airport,%20VA:%2077.8%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2076.8%C2%B0%20summer%20of%202007)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ERichmond,%20VA:%2081.3%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2080.0%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201994)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EAtlantic%20City,%20NJ:%2077.5%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2075.8%C2%B0%20summer%20of%202005)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EPhiladelphia,%20PA:%2079.6%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2078.9%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201995)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ETrenton,%20NJ:%2077.7%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2076.5%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201898)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EWilmington,%20DE:%2077.8%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2077.7%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201900)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EBaltimore,%20MD:%2079.2%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2079.1%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201943)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ENorfolk,%20VA:%2081.1%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2080.0%C2%B0%20summer%20of%201994)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ETampa,%20FL:%2084.5%C2%B0%20(previous%20record%2084.2%C2%B0%20in%201998)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ELakeland,%20FL:%2084.6%C2%B0%20(previous%20record%2084.4%C2%B0%20in%201987)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ESt.%20Petersburg,%20FL:%2085.6%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2084.6%C2%B0%20in%201987)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EAsheville,%20NC:%2075.4%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2075.1%C2%B0%20in%201952)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EGreenville,%20SC:%2081.0%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2080.2%C2%B0%20in%201952)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3EA%20cold%20summer%20for%20Coastal%20California%3C/strong%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ESanta%20Barbara,%20CA%20was%20the%20only%20major%20U.S.%20city%20that%20had%20its%20coldest%20summer%20on%20record:%2061.9%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2062.2%C2%B0%20in%201955.%20Several%20other%20California%20cities%20were%20unusually%20cool.%20San%20Diego%20had%20its%203rd%20coolest%20summer,%20and%20the%20Los%20Angeles%20airport%20(LAX)%20had%20its%202nd%20coolest%20summer.%20Ironically,%20Los%20Angeles%20(downtown%20site%20at%20USC)%20recorded%20the%20highest%20temperature%20ever%20recorded%20at%20any%20official%20site%20in%20the%20city%20on%20Sept.%2027%20with%20a%20113%C2%B0%20reading,%20edging%20out%20the%20old%20record%20of%20112%C2%B0%20set%20on%20June%2026,%201990.%20Jeff%20has%20more%20about%20this%20in%20his%20blog%20today%20(Sept.%2028).%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cbig%3E%3Cb%3EU.S.%20cities%20setting%20all-time%20record%20highs%3C/b%3E%3C/big%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EHartford,%20CT%20tied%20its%20all-time%20heat%20record%20with%20102%C2%B0%20on%20July%206%20(tied%20with%20July%203,%201966).%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ENorfolk,%20VA%20tied%20its%20all-time%20heat%20record%20with%20105%C2%B0%20on%20July%2025%20(tied%20with%20Aug.%207,%201918)%20and%20an%20unofficial%20temperature%20of%20109%C2%B0%20was%20reported%20from%20Williamsburg%20that%20same%20day,%20tying%20the%20record%20for%20the%20state%20of%20Virginia%20(a%20reading%20of%20110%C2%B0F%20from%20Balcony%20Falls%20on%20July%2015,%201954%20has%20since%20been%20disallowed%20by%20the%20Virginia%20State%20Climate%20Office).%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cbig%3E%3Cb%3EU.S.%20cities%20setting%20hottest%20single%20month%20on%20record%20marks%20in%20July%202010%3C/big%3E%3C/b%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EJuly%20was%20the%20single%20hottest%20month%20on%20record%20at%20Atlantic%20City,%20NJ:%2079.8%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2078.7%C2%B0%20in%20July%201983),%20and%20tied%20for%20the%20single%20hottest%20month%20on%20record%20at%20the%20following%20locations:%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EWashington%20D.C.%20Warmest%20single%20month%20on%20record%20tied:%2083.1%C2%B0%20(tying%20July%201943)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EBaltimore,%20MD:%20Warmest%20single%20month%20on%20record%20tied:%2081.5%C2%B0%20(tying%20July%201995)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ETrenton,%20NJ:%20Warmest%20single%20month%20on%20record%20tied:%2080.5%C2%B0%20(tying%20July%201955%20and%20July%201898)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cstrong%3E.%20and%20August%202010:%3C/strong%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EHouston,%20TX:%20Warmest%20single%20month%20on%20record:%2087.7%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2087.5%C2%B0%20in%20July%201980%20and%20earlier%20date)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EPort%20Arthur,%20TX:%20Warmest%20single%20month%20on%20record:%2085.8%C2%B0%20(old%20record%2085.6%C2%B0%20in%20August%201962)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3E%3Cbig%3ENational%20heat%20records%20set%20in%202010%3C/b%3E%3C/big%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EThe%20year%202010%20now%20has%20the%20most%20national%20extreme%20heat%20records%20for%20a%20single%20year--seventeen.%20The%20year%202008%20is%20in%20second%20place,%20with%20fifteen.%20Here%20are%20the%20new%20records%20set%20during%20the%20period%20May%20-%20August:%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EMyanmar%3C/b%3E%20(Burma)%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20in%20its%20recorded%20history%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EMay%2014%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2047.2%C2%B0C%20(117%C2%B0F)%20in%20Myinmu.%20This%20is%20the%20hottest%20reliably%20measured%20temperature%20in%20Southeast%20Asia%20records.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EPakistan%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EMay%2026%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%20an%20astonishing%2053.5%C2%B0C%20(128.3%C2%B0F)%20at%20the%20town%20of%20Mohenjo-Daro,%20according%20to%20the%20Pakistani%20Meteorological%20Department.%20While%20this%20temperature%20reading%20must%20be%20reviewed%20by%20the%20World%20Meteorological%20Organization%20(WMO)%20for%20authenticity,%20not%20only%20is%20the%20128.3%C2%B0F%20reading%20the%20hottest%20temperature%20ever%20recorded%20in%20Pakistan,%20it%20is%20the%20hottest%20reliably%20measured%20temperature%20ever%20recorded%20on%20the%20continent%20of%20Asia%20(the%20reading%20of%20129%C2%B0F%20attributed%20to%20Tirat%20Tsvi,%20Israel%20in%201942%20is%20an%20error.)%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EKuwait%3C/b%3E%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2015%3C/strong%3E%20in%20Abdaly,%20according%20to%20the%20Kuwait%20Met%20office.%20The%20mercury%20hit%2052.6%C2%B0C%20(126.7%C2%B0F).%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EIraq%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20day%20in%20history%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2014%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2052.0%C2%B0C%20(125.6%C2%B0F)%20in%20Basra%20.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3ESaudi%20Arabia%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2022%3C/strong%3E%20with%20a%20reading%20of%2052.0%C2%B0C%20(125.6%C2%B0F)%20in%20Jeddah.%20the%20second%20largest%20city%20in%20Saudi%20Arabia.%20The%20record%20heat%20was%20accompanied%20by%20a%20sandstorm,%20which%20caused%20eight%20power%20plants%20to%20go%20offline,%20resulting%20in%20blackouts%20to%20several%20Saudi%20cities.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EChad%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20day%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2022%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20temperature%20reached%2047.6%C2%B0C%20(117.7%C2%B0F)%20at%20Faya%20.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3ESudan%3C/b%3E%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2022%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20rose%20to%2049.7%C2%B0C%20(121.5%C2%B0F)%20at%20Dongola.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3ENiger%3C/b%3E%20set%20its%20record%20for%20hottest%20day%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2023%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20temperature%20reached%2048.2%C2%B0C%20(118.8%C2%B0F)%20at%20Bilma%20.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3ERussia%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJuly%2011%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20rose%20to%2044.0%C2%B0C%20(111.2%C2%B0F)%20in%20Yashkul.%20Kalmykia%20Republic,%20in%20the%20European%20portion%20of%20Russia%20near%20the%20Kazakhstan%20border.The%20Asian%20portion%20of%20Russia%20also%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20in%20history%20this%20year,%20a%2042.7%C2%B0C%20(108.9%C2%B0F)%20reading%20at%20Ust%20Kara,%20in%20the%20Chita%20Republic%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJune%2027.%3C/strong%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EQatar%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJuly%2014%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2050.4%C2%B0C%20(122.7%C2%B0F)%20at%20Doha%20Airport.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EFinland%3C/b%3E%20had%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20ever%20measured%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EJuly%2029%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2037.2%C2%B0C%20(99%C2%B0F)%20at%20Joensuu%20Airport,%20Liperi.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3ECyprus%3C/b%3E%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EAugust%201%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2046.6%C2%B0C%20(115.9%C2%B0F)%20at%20Lefconica%20.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EBelarus%3C/b%3E%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EAugust%206%3C/strong%3E%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2038.9%C2%B0C%20(102.0%C2%B0F)%20in%20Gomel.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3EUkraine%3C/b%3E%20recorded%20its%20hottest%20temperature%20on%20record%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%2042.0%C2%B0C%20(107.6%C2%B0F)%20at%20Luhansk%20on%20%3Cstrong%3EAugust%2012.%3C/strong%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EAll-time%20national%20heat%20records%20were%20missed%20by%201%C2%B0C%20or%20less%20in%20many%20other%20nations%20this%20summer,%20including%20China,%20the%20Azores,%20Morocco,%20Estonia,%20and%20Latvia.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3EExtensive%20credit%20for%20researching%20these%20records%20goes%20to%20weather%20records%20researcher%20Maximiliano%20Herrera,%20who%20maintains%20a%20comprehensive%20set%20of%20extreme%20temperature%20records%20on%20his%20web%20site.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%3Cb%3E%3Cbig%3ENational%20cold%20records%20set%20in%202010%3C/b%3E%3C/big%3E%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3ENo%20nations%20set%20record%20for%20their%20coldest%20temperature%20in%20history%20in%202010.%20Jeff%20Masters%20erroneously%20reported%20in%20his%20blog%20earlier%20this%20year%20that%20%3Cb%3EGuinea%3C/b%3E%20had%20done%20so.%20Guinea%20actually%20had%20its%20coldest%20temperature%20in%20history%20last%20year,%20on%20January%209,%202009,%20when%20the%20mercury%20hit%201.4%C2%B0C%20(34.5%C2%B0F)%20at%20Mali-ville%20in%20the%20Labe%20region.%3C/p%3E%0D%0A%3Cp%3E%25img%20src="http://www.wunderground.com/hurricane/2010/heatrecords2010.jpg>

Some causes for the excessive heat during the summer of 2010

All in all it may be estimated that about 300 million people, some 5% of the planet's human population, experienced their hottest summer ever. If we take in to account the fact that the months of June through August are normally the warmest season for only areas north of the Tropic of Cancer (22° N) in the Northern Hemisphere (and excluding South and Southeast Asia whose warmest months are April and May), then the figure is closer to 20% of the world population that can expect their warmest season to be

June through August.

The cause for this in the Eastern Hemisphere can be blamed on a stubborn, stagnant upper-air pattern that began in Southeast Asia in May, slowly worked its way westward across South Asia and Southwest Asia in July, and finally into Eastern Europe by August. This same pattern also contributed to the catastrophic floods in Pakistan and China. In North America, a similar pattern developed in June with an amplified ridge developing over the eastern portion of the USA in June and remaining in place through August, while a persistent trough of low pressure in the Gulf of Alaska refused to budge all summer (and, ironically) resulted in one of the coolest summers on record for portions of California.

The other culprit for the record heat can perhaps be attributed to the general trend towards warmer weather globally as a result of human-caused climate change. This year is on track to be the warmest since record keeping began in 1880, according to both NOAA and NASA.

As climatologist Bob Henson of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder, CO) remarked following the record Western European heat wave in August 2003 that killed over 35,000:

If you push the baseline up without changing the standard deviation, you're bound to raise the ceiling of record.

Source: www.wunderground.com

Category: Forex

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