How do you balance chemical reactions

how do you balance chemical reactions

A P

C H E M I S T R Y

Jump to General Chemistry AP1-Introduction (20 cards on 5 pages) The Scientific Method, Observations and Measurements (Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences), Significant Digits, Scientific Notation, Accuracy vs. Precision, Metric System, % and ppm, Unit Analysis, Temperature Scales, Mass vs. Weight, Potential Energy (PE) and Kinetic Energy (KE), Intensive vs. Extensive Properties, Calorimetry, Physical and Chemical Properties, Physical and Chemical Changes, Pure Substances, Elements, & Compounds; Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Mixtures; Separating Mixtures by Filtration, Distillation, and Chromatography; Early Laws: the Law of Definite Composition & the Law of Simple Multiple Proportions

AP2-Stoichiometry (24 cards on 6 pages) Formula Conventions, Stoichiometry Terms, Calculating Formula Mass, Mole Facts, Line Equations, Mole Relationships, Percentage Composition, Formula from % Composition, Equation Terms, Other Mole Problems and Conversions, Writing Formula Equations Things To Remember, Coefficients and Relative Volumes of Gases, Heart of the Problem, Mass-Mass Problems, Mass-Volume Problems, Mass-Volume-Particle Problems, Limiting Reactant Problems, How Much Excess Reactant is Left Over, Limiting Reactants, Theoretical Yield and Percentage Yield, Balancing Chemical Equations, Combustion Equations, Solutions -- Molar Concentration, Dilution Problems, Acid-Base Titrations

AP3-The Periodic Table (12 cards on 3 pages) The Subatomic Particles, Terms--Atomic Structure, Calculating Atomic Mass; Determining Numbers of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons from the Isotopic Notation; Important People in the Development of the Atomic Theory; Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids; Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment, The First Periodic Table, Families of the Periodic Table, Radioactivity Basics, J.J. Thomson & Cathode Ray Tubes

AP4-Electronic Structure (16 cards on 4 pages) Wave Ideas You Should Know, Wave Calculations, The Balmer Series, The De Broglie Wavelength of Electrons, Standing Waves, Quantum Numbers (n, l, m, s), Three Rules for Filling Orbitals, Electron Configurations; The s-block, p-block. of the Periodic Table; Exceptions to the Filling Rules, Shapes of the Orbitals, Predicting the Atomic Size (radius), Trends in the Periodic Table, Explaining Sizes of Ions, The Lanthanide Contraction, Ionization Energy & Reactivity: Trends Across a Period & Down a Family, Ionization Energy: Trends in Successive Ionizations, Electron Affinity

AP5-Chemical Bonding--General (12 cards on 3 pages) Some Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds, Lewis Symbols of Atoms and Ions, The Ionic Bond, Noble and Pseudonoble Gas Configurations, Factors that Influence the Formation of Ionic Bonds, The Covalent Bond: Attractions and Repulsions, Groves' Electron Dot System: Multiple & Extended Valence Bonds; Bond Order: Bond Length, Strength, & Vibrational Frequency; Resonance, Coordinate Covalent Bonds, Electronegativity and Polar Bonds, Naming Ionic Compounds, Traditional and Stock Names, Naming Acids

AP6-Covalent Bonding & Molecular Structure Still gotta' do this one!

AP7-Chemical Reactions & the Periodic Table (16 cards on 4 pages) Solutions & Solubility, Weak and Strong Electrolytes, Ionic Reactions, Arrhenius Acids & Bases, Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases, Ions in Water, Some Metal Ions Make Water Acidic, Trends in Acid Strength, Lewis Acids & Bases, Oxidation Numbers, Balancing Redox Equations, Reactions in Basic Solutions, Metals as Reducing Agents, Activity Series of Metals, Non-Metals as Oxidizing Agents, Oxygen as an Oxidizing Agent, Combustion, Amphiprotic/Amphoteric & Leveling Effect

AP8-Ionic Reactions in Solution (12 cards on 3 pages) Driving Forces for Metathesis Reactions, Solubility Rules, Weak Electrolytes & Neutralization Reactions, Gas Formation During Metathesis, Preparation of Salts, Comparing Driving Forces; Weight Percent, ppm & ppb; Chemical Analyses: Precipitations, Combustions & Titrations; Titration Terminology, Acid-Base & Redox Titrations; Three Common Oxidizing Agents, Common Reducing Agents; equivalents, Equivalent Weights & Normality

AP9-The Gas Laws (12 cards on 3 pages) Boyle's Law, Boyle's Law Lab, Kelvin Temperature Scale, Charles' Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, The Combined Gas Law, The Ideal Gas Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Why Do All Gases Cause the Same Pressure, Graham's Law, The Real Gas Law, Kinetic Molecular Theory, Pressure = Force/Area

AP10-States of Matter & IMF's (16 cards on 4 pages) Comparing Gases, Liquid, and Solids, Surface Tension, KE Distributions & Evaporation, Molecular Crystals & IMF's, Hvap & IMF's, Vapor Pressures of Liquids, Boiling Point & IMF's, Freezing Point, Melting Point, Hfusion. Common Crystal Structures and Units Cells, Four Types of Crystals--A Summary, Crystal Types--Further Notes, Heating and Cooling Curves, Phase Diagrams--I, Phase Diagrams--II, Names of the Phase Changes, More Internet Resources

AP12-Chemical Thermodynamics (12 cards on 3 pages) Commonly Used Terms, Heat Capacity & Specific Heat, First Law of Thermodyanmics, Work & PV Work, Work is NOT a State Function, Reversible Processes, Change in Enthalpy, Hess's Law of Heat Summation, Bond Energy, Driving Forces: Entropy & Enthalpy, Second Law of Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

AP22-Nuclear Chemistry (16 cards on 4 pages) The People, Terms, Types of Radiation, Half-Life, Nuyclear Equations, Stabilizing Unstable Nuclei, Uses of Radioactivity, Fission and Fusion, Energy-Mass Conversion, What Happens During Beta and Positron Decay, Calculating Half-Lives, Radioactive Decay Series, Geiger-Muller Tubes, Smoke

Detectors, and Brushes for Cleaning Negatives, Extending the Periodic Table

AP23-Organic Chemistry (16 cards on 4 pages) Historical Ideas, Alkane Series -- Saturated Hydrocarbons, Structural Formulas Can Be Misleading, Alkenes & Cis/Trans Isomerism; Alkynes, Alkadienes, and Cyclic Compounds; Naming Organic Compounds (IUPAC Rules), Common Errors in Drawing/Naming Structures, Optical Isomers / Chiral Compounds, Common Names You Should Know, Aromatic Compounds -- Benzene and Its Derivatives, Functional Groups I -- Alcohols & Ethers, Functional Groups II -- Aldehydes & Ketones, Functional Groups III -- Carboxylic Acids & Esters, Functional Groups IV -- Amines & Amides, Addition Polymerization, Condensation Polymerization

More To Come As soon as I get some more free time. stay tuned.

G E N E R A L

C H E M I S T R Y

Jump to AP Chemistry GC1,2,3-Introduction, Measurement, & Prob. Solving (12 cards on 3 pages) The Scientific Method, Observations and Measurements (Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences), Graphing--Great Graphs, Recongizing and Using Significant Digits, Scientific Notation, Accuracy vs. Precision, Metric System, % and ppm, Unit Analysis

GC4-Matter (8 cards on 2 pages) Mass & Weight; Pure Substances, Elements, Compounds & Mixtures; Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Mixtures, Separating Mixtures by Filtration, Distillation & Chromatography; Mass, Volume & Density; Intensive & Extensive Properties, Physical & Chemical Properties, Physical & Chemical Changes, Conservation of Mass, Symbols of the Elements, Relative Abundance of the Elements, Natural History of Airs Lab

GC5-Energy Study cards were never completed for this chapter. they are incorporated into other chapters.

GC6-Structure of the Atom (8 cards on 2 pages) Subatomic Particles, Terms, Calculating Atomic Mass; Determining Numbers of Protons, Neutrons & Electrons from Isotopic Notation; Important People, Early Experimental Observations, Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

GC7-Chemical Formulas (12 cards on 3 pages) Terms, Memorization Tips for Positive and Negative Ions, Formula Conventions, How Ions Form, Writing Ionic Formulas, More Ions & Oxidation Numbers, Determining Oxidation Numbers, Writing & Naming Acids, Stock Names vs. Traditional Names, Naming Molecular Compounds, Determining Ion Charges from Formulas

GC8-The Mathematics of Chemical Formulas (8 cards on 2 pages) Terms, Calculating Formula Mass, Mole Facts, Line Equations, Mole Relationships, Percent Composition, Formula from % Composition, Other Mole Problems

GC9-Chemical Equations (8 cards on 2 pages) Terms, Types of Reactions, Energy Changes, Showing Phases in Equations; Molecular, Ionic & Net Ionic Equations; Word Equations, Law of Conservation of Mass & Complete Combustion

GC10-The Mathematics of Chemical Equations (8 cards on 2 pages) Coefficients and Relative Volumes of Gases, Hearts of the Problem, Mass-Mass & Mass-Volume Problems, Limiting Reactant Problems, How Much Excess is Left, Baking Soda Lab Ideas

GC11-Phases of Matter (8 cards on 2 pages) Pressure Definition & Units, Manometers & Measuring Pressure, heating Curve and Energy Changes, Names of Phase Changes & Energy, Kinetic Molecular Theory; Vapor Pressure, IMF's & Kinetic Energy; Boiling Point; Solids, Liquids & Gases

GC12-The Gas Laws (8 cards on 2 pages) Boyle's Law, Boyle's Law Lab, Kelvin Temperature Scale, Charles' Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, The Combined Gas Law, The Ideal Gas Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Why Do All Gases Cause the Same Pressure, Graham's Law

GC13-Electron Configurations (4 cards on 1 page) Electron Energy Levels, Orbital Diagrams & Electron Configurations, Filling Orbitals, Valence Electrons

GC14-The Periodic Table (8 cards on 2 pages) Trends about the Periodic Table, People of the Periodic Table, Families (Groups) of the Table, Terms, Trends of the Periodic Table, Explaining the Size of Atoms and Ions, Explaining Ionization Energy, Isoelectronic Species, Clues for the Periodic Table

GC15-Chemical Bonding (8 cards on 2 pages) Three Types of Bonding, The Ionic Bond, The Covalent Bond, Lewis Dot Structures, The Bednarski Method of Drawing Dot Structures, Comparing Ionic & Molecular Substances, Electronegativity & Polar Bonds, Shapes & Polar Molecules

GC24-Organic Chemistry (12 cards on 3 pages) Historical Ideas, Alkane Series -- Saturated Hydrocarbons, Structural Formulas Can Be Misleading, Alkenes & Cis/Trans Isomerism; Alkynes, Alkadienes, and Cyclic Compounds; Naming Organic Compounds (IUPAC Rules), Common Errors in Drawing/Naming Structures, Aromatic Compounds -- Benzene and Its Derivatives, Functional Groups I -- Alcohols & Ethers, Functional Groups II -- Aldehydes & Ketones, Functional Groups III -- Carboxylic Acids & Esters, Functional Groups IV -- Amines & Amides

--Four Extra Cards -- (4 cards on 1 page)

Optical Isomers / Chiral Compounds, Common Names You Should Know, Addition Polymerization, Condensation Polymerization

GC26-Nuclear Chemistry (12 cards on 3 pages) The People, Terms, Types of Radiation, Half-Life, Nuyclear Equations, Stabilizing Unstable Nuclei, Uses of Radioactivity, Fission and Fusion, Energy -Mass Conversion, What Happens During Beta and Positron Decay

More To Come As soon as I get some more free time. stay tuned.

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