The angle of the face of the club with respect to the shaft is called loft. Drivers, 2 and 3 irons have very little loft. Wedges. and short irons have considerable loft by design.
And, as your intuition tells you, the more highly lofted a club is, the higher will be the trajectory of your ball.
Loft angles are expressed in degrees with respect to vertical rather than the ground. A high-lofted club, such as a sand wedge would have a loft somewhere about 55-degrees. Lob wedges can go as high as 64-degrees. But that's about the practical limit for a club. You only need about 60-degrees to make a perfect flop shot.
What is the official loft angle for each golf club?
There aren't any official values. Manufacturers are free to set the angles to whatever they wish.
We can show you a chart indicating nominal loft angles for a modern set of irons. Realize that over the last forty years, manufacturers have changed these values considerably in order to make their models more attractive. By slightly reducing the loft angle of a club, the ball travels a bit farther. Distance sells. This is called "creep".
The following are typical loft angles for a set of irons. However, there is considerable variability across manufacturers. Read the bottom of this page for some examples of loft creep.