- Several types of faults occur in the crust.
In this lab we will study
the three types of faults that can form. Next, we will look at how and earthquake forms along a fault. Then we will see how a seismometer records an earthquake and how the location and magnitude are determined. Finally we will look at the relationship between earthquakes and plate tectonics.
A fault is a fracture or zone of fractures slong which there has been displacement of the rock on either side of the fracture. Faulting is a basic mechanism by which rocks deform. Faults are generally planar and are classified according to the nature of the movements as observed perpendicular to the plane of the fault. Four common types of faults are shown below. Tensional forces cause normal faulting, whereas compressional forces cause reverse and thrust faulting. Notice how the relative movements along the faults differ and are caused from the different forces.