Greek presocratic philosopher who supposed that the four elements are irreducible components of the world, joined to and separated from each other by competing principles. Love
Recommended Reading: Empedocles: The Extant Fragments. ed. by M. R. Wright (Hackett, 1995); Empedocles. ed. by Brad Inwood (Toronto, 2001); and Peter Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition (Oxford, 1997).
Based on use of the senses. observation, or experience generally. Hence, the empirical coincides with what is a posteriori .
Reliance on experience as the source of ideas and knowledge. More specifically, empiricism is the epistemological theory that genuine information about the world must be acquired by a posteriori means, so that nothing can be thought without first being sensed. Prominent modern empiricists include Bacon. Locke . Berkeley . Hume . and Mill . In the twentieth century, empiricism principles were extended and applied by the pragmatists and the logical positivists.
Recommended Reading: Jean Le Rond D'Alembert, Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot. tr. by Richard N. Schwab (Chicago, 1995) and Encyclopedie (French & European, 1997): Vol. I. Vol. II. Vol. III. and Vol. IV.
The goal or purpose of a thing; hence, in the philosophy of Aristotle . the final cause.
Greek term for the operation or activity of anything. More technically, in the philosophy of Aristotle . ενεργεια is the actuality characteristic of every individual substance toward some end
Recommended Reading: George A. Blair, Energeia and Entelecheia: Act in Aristotle (Ottawa, 1992) and F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon (NYU, 1967).
German political activist and philosopher. Engels collaborated with Karl Marx on the Manifest der kommunistischen Partei ( Communist Manifesto ) (1848) and other political works. His own philosophical writing, including Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England ( The Condition of the Working Class in England ) (1845), Socialism, Utopian and Scientific (1880), and Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy (1888), provided an excellent exposition of dialectical materialism and significantly influenced the development of the ideology of modern communism. His analysis of bourgeois family life in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) offers an interesting anticipation of feminist concern with the place of women in society by noting the role of patriarchal oppression in preserving the capitalist order and by urging the elimination of private domestic labor for women.
Recommended Reading: The Portable Enlightenment Reader. ed. by Issac Kramnick (Penguin, 1995); Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. tr. by J. Pettegrove and F. Koelin (Princeton, 1968); Michael Losonsky, Enlightenment and Action from Descartes to Kant: Passionate Thought (Cambridge, 2001); Peter Gay, The Enlightenment ( The Rise of Modern Paganism (Norton, 1995); Adam Sutcliffe, Judaism and Enlightenment (Cambridge, 2003); and The Science of Freedom (Norton, 1996); and Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth Century Philosophers. ed. by Isaiah Berlin (Plume, 1993).
Relation between propositions such that one of them is strictly implied by the other(s); that is, its falsity is logically impossible. given the truth of what entails it. Thus, the premises of a valid deductive argument entail its conclusion.
Charles F. Kielkopf, Formal Sentential Entailment (U. Press of America, 1986) and Entailment. ed. by Alan Ross Anderson, Nuel D. Belnap, and J. Michael Dunn (Princeton, 1992).
German terms (literally, "estrangement" and "externalization") used by Hegel and Marx to describe the phenomenon of alienation from one's own nature.
Aristotle 's Greek term for the complete reality or perfection of a thing, as the soul is of the human body. For Leibniz . then, an "entelechy" is the active force resident in every monad.
Recommended Reading: George A. Blair, Energeia and Entelecheia: Act in Aristotle (Ottawa, 1992); F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon (NYU, 1967); and The Cambridge Companion to Leibniz. ed. by Nicholas Jolley (Cambridge, 1994).
An exaggerated state of religious fervor or reliance on divine inspiration. Enlightenment philosophers such as Locke and Leibniz decried manifestations of enthusiasm as incompatible with the proper employment of rational faculties.
Recommended Reading: Michael Heyd, ‘Be Sober and Reasonable’: The Critique of Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries (Brill, 1995) and Josef Pieper, Enthusiasm and Divine Madness: On the Platonic Dialogue Phaedrus. tr. by Richard and Clara Winston (St. Augustine, 2000).
Example: "Since some finches are cardinals, it follows that some birds are cardinals."
Stoic philosopher whose Manual set forth the conditions under which one may live well (even as a slave) by distinguishing correctly between things under our control (our desires and feelings) and things not under our control (events and circumstances).
For a discussion of his life and works, see Epictetus .
Greek philosopher who explored the moral consequences of ancient atomism.
For a discussion of his life and works, see Epicurus .
Belief that consciousness is an incidental side-effect ("epiphenomenon") or by-product of physical or mechanical reality. On this view, although mental events are in some sense real they have no causal efficacy in the material realm.
Recommended Reading: D. M. Armstrong, The Mind-Body Problem: An Opinionated Introduction (Westviesw, 1999) and Jaegwon Kim, Mind in a Physical World: An Essay on the Mind-Body Problem and Mental Causation (Bradford, 2000).
Greek term for an organized body of theoretical knowledge. According to Plato . this encompasses the upper portion of the divided line. In the philosophy of Aristotle . επιστημη is a body of demonstrable truths about the essences of things.
Recommended Reading: F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon (NYU, 1967).
Branch of philosophy that investigates the possibility, origins, nature, and extent of human knowledge. Although the effort to develop an adequate theory of knowledge is at least as old as Plato 's Theaetetus. epistemology has dominated Western philosophy only since the era of Descartes and Locke . as an extended dispute between rationalism and empiricism over the respective importance of a priori and a posteriori origins. Contemporary postmodern thinkers (including many feminist philosophers) have proposed the contextualization of knowledge as part of an intersubjective process.
Recommended Reading: Robert Audi, Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge (Routledge, 1998); A Companion to Epistemology. ed. by Jonathan Dancy and Ernest Sosa (Blackwell, 1994); D. W. Hamlyn, The Theory of Knowledge (Anchor, 1970); Stephen Hetherington, Good Knowledge, Bad Knowledge: On Two Dogmas of Epistemology (Oxford, 2001); Richard Swinburne, Epistemic Justification (Oxford, 2001); Martin Kusch, Knowledge by Agreement: the Programme of Communitarian Epistemology (Oxford, 2002); Fred I. Dretske, Perception, Knowledge and Belief: Selected Essays (Cambridge, 2000); and The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. ed. by John Greco and Ernest Sosa (Blackwell, 1998).