What bladder control problems does nerve damage cause?
Nerves that work poorly can lead to three different kinds of bladder control problems.
Nerves carry signals from the brain to the bladder and sphincter.
Overactive bladder. Damaged nerves may send signals to the bladder at the wrong time, causing its muscles to squeeze without warning. The symptoms of overactive bladder include
- urinary frequency -- defined as urination eight or more times a day or two or more times at night
- urinary urgency -- the sudden, strong need to urinate immediately
- urge incontinence -- leakage of urine that follows a sudden, strong urge to urinate
Poor control of sphincter muscles. Sphincter muscles surround the urethra and keep it closed to hold urine in the bladder. If the nerves to the sphincter muscles are damaged, the muscles may become loose and allow leakage or stay tight when you are trying to release urine.
retention. For some people, nerve damage means their bladder muscles do not get the message that it is time to release urine or are too weak to completely empty the bladder. If the bladder becomes too full, urine may back up and the increasing pressure may damage the kidneys. Or urine that stays too long may lead to an infection in the kidneys or bladder. Urine retention may also lead to overflow incontinence.
What causes nerve damage?
Many events or conditions can damage nerves and nerve pathways. Some of the most common causes are
- vaginal childbirth
- infections of the brain or spinal cord
- accidents that injure the brain or spinal cord
- multiple sclerosis
- heavy metal poisoning
In addition, some children are born with nerve problems that can keep the bladder from releasing urine, leading to urinary infections or kidney damage.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/2/2014