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The two common paths are to be a SME or a developer, but there are dedicated training/education programs for the profession as well.
Many BAs get their start as a subject matter expert (SME) on a big project in their organization. They'll be working in some job (say in finance or HR), get seconded to the project to help with the requirements, configuration, and training for a new system and -- when the project's over -- get asked to stay on as a BA. If you're not working in a large organization about to undertake a big systems project, this path won't be available to you.
Another common approach is to be a developer "who can write and speak to the client". Many BAs I know have taken this path. If you're not already a developer, it may be a circuitous route -- although you might find you like development!
Option three is to find
a BA training program. Many of these are aimed at existing BAs who are looking to improve their skills and resume, and are priced for professionals.
Finally. Despite the availability of certificates and credentials, being a BA is still a profession where a quick learner who's good with people and writing can do well -- you may be able to bluff your way in with none if the above. Your odds are better if you have:
- Some SDLC experience in any capacity
- Writing experience
- Experience working with people -- even customer service
- Some understanding of how databases work -- this is the only "technical" skill I think a BA needs
- The ability to draw a process with some sort of recognized boxes and lines notation, e.g. UML process diagrams, BPMN, or data flow diagrams
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